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The different driving cycles


A driving cycle commonly represents a set of vehicle speed points versus time. It is used to assess fuel consumption and pollutants emissions of a vehicle in a normalized way, so that different vehicles can be compared. The driving cycle is performed on a chassis dynamometer, where tailpipes emissions of the vehicle are collected and analyzed to assess the emissions rates.

In commercial vehicles area, the driving cycle is not performed on a vehicle dynamometer but on an engine dynamometer and is evaluated through a set of engine torque and speed points instead of vehicle speed points.

There are two kinds of driving cycles, the modal cycles as the European standard NEDC, or Japanese 10-15 Mode and the transient cycles as the FTP-75 or Artemis cycle. Main difference is that modal cycles are a compilation of straight acceleration and constant speed periods and are not representative of a real driver behavior, whereas transient cycles involve many speed variations, typical of on-road driving conditions.

European driving cycles



The NEDC is used as reference cycle for homologating vehicles until Euro6 norm in Europe and some other countries. It is made of an urban part called ECE, which is repeated four times, and an extra-urban part, the EUDC.

Here are the main characteristics of the cycle:

Distance 11023 m
Duration1180 s
Average speed 33.6 km/h

This cycle is criticized by experts as it doesn’t represent real life driving conditions. Indeed, accelerations are very soft; there are a lot of constant speed cruises and a lot of idle events. This make impossible to obtain certified values when driving with the vehicle in real conditions. For those reasons, a solution to replace the NEDC is being explored by European authorities. The new cycle called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) will probably appear for the upcoming norm Euro7.

The Artemis driving cycle

This cycle is based on a statistical study done in Europe within the so called Artemis project. It is made of 3 different configurations, plus an additional variant: the urban cycle, the rural one, the motorway 130 km/h and the motorway 150 km/h.

Artemis Urban cycle
Artemis Rural cycle
Artemis Motorway cycle

Here are the main characteristics of the cycles:

UrbanRuralMotorway 150Motorway130
Distance 4870 m17272 m29545 m28735 m
Duration993 s1082 s1068 s1068 s
Average speed 17.6 km/h57.5 km/h99.6 km/h96.9 km/h

Artemis cycles are not used for certification of pollutants or fuel consumption. However, car manufacturers use this kind of cycle to better understand real driving conditions and to assess real performances of their vehicles.

Note that it exists several other cycles more or less used by car manufacturers like the modem-Hyzem cycle that will not be described in this featured article.

American driving cycles

FTP-75 cycle

The FTP cycle (for Federal Test Procedure) has been created by US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to represent a commuting cycle with a part of urban driving including frequent stops and a part of highway driving.


Here are the main characteristics of the cycle:

Distance 11.04 miles (17.77 km)
Duration1874 s
Average speed 21.2 mph (34.1 km/h)

Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle

The Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) is used to assess fuel economy over highway driving cycle.

Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle

Here are the main characteristics of the cycle:

Distance 12.26 miles (16.45 km)
Duration765 s
Average speed 48.3 mph (77.7 km/h)

Other test cycles

In 2007, EPA decided to add 3 more cycles to the existing ones, in order to better reflect real world driving conditions.

The first one is the US06, which is a complement to what is missing in FTP-75 cycle. Indeed, this cycle has a higher top speed of 80 mph (130 km/h) and some higher acceleration which represents a much more aggressive driving behavior.

The SC03 is another added cycle which particularity is to be performed at 35°C ambient temperature. This is needed for taking into account the air-conditioning in fuel consumption and emissions calculations.

The last added cycle is the “cold cycle”. This is in fact a FTP-75 performed at -7°C ambient temperature.

Japanese driving cycles

The 10-15 mode cycle

The 10-15 mode Japanese cycle is being used for emissions and fuel consumption certification in Japan. It simulates both urban and motorway cycle, including idling, accelerations, cruising and decelerations. The measurements are performed while engine is hot, after a standard warming procedure.

10-15 mode

Here are the main characteristics of the cycle:

Distance 4.16 km
Duration660 s
Average speed 22.7 km/h

This cycle has the same disadvantages as the NEDC, that’s why Japanese authorities and manufacturers decided to switch to a more realistic cycle starting from 2011, the JC08 cycle.

The JC08 cycle

The JC08 is a transient cycle which is much more demanding than 10-15 mode cycle. It is performed both with cold and warm start and it represents driving in congested condition, with strong accelerations and decelerations.

JC08 cycle

Here are the main characteristics of the cycle:

Distance 8.17 km
Duration1204 s
Average speed 24.4 km/h

Global harmonized driving cycle

Like previous cycles, the Worldwide Harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP) is a test performed on chassis dynamometer. It allows to evaluate the pollutants and emissions, the fuel economy but also the electric range of light duty vehicles (passenger cars and vans). It is developed by European, Japanese and Indian experts in order to replace the NEDC cycle by 2013-2014.

The test procedure is divided into 3 cycles, depending on a power to mass ratio of the tested vehicle. This power to mass ratio (PMR) is defined as the rated power in W divided by the curb weight in kg. 3 classes are then defined as given in the following table:

Power to mass ratioComments
Class 3PMR ≥ 34If Vmax < 135 km/h, the Extra High speed part is replaced with Low speed part
Class 222< PMR < 34If Vmax < 90 km/h, the High speed part is replaced with Low speed part
Class 1 PMR ≤ 22If Vmax < 70 km/h, the Medium speed part is replaced with Low speed part

Class 3 cycle

Class 3 cycle is made of four speed zones: one representative of urban driving, one suburban driving, one extra-urban driving, and a highway zone.

WLTC Class 3 cycle

Here are the main characteristics of the cycle:

Distance 23.262 km
Duration1800 s
Average speed 46.5 km/h

Class 2 cycle

Class 2 cycle is representing low, medium and relatively high vehicle speeds, covering Indian vehicles and European and Japanese low power vehicles.

WLTC Class 2 cycle

Here are the main characteristics of the cycle:

Distance 14.664 km
Duration1477 s
Average speed 35.7 km/h

Class 1 cycle

This cycle is made of low and medium speed zones.  It is typical of low power vehicles that can be found in India.

WLTC Class 1 cycle

Here are the main characteristics of the cycle:

Distance 8.091 km
Duration1022 s
Average speed 28.5 km/h

Heavy duty test cycles

As said earlier, heavy duty vehicle’s emissions and fuel consumption are assessed on engine test bench and not on vehicle test bench. It exists two world harmonized cycles used for homologation that are represented by a set of normalized engine load and engine speed (in % of maximum speed and load) versus time, the first one is stationary (WHSC for World Harmonized Stationary Cycle) and the second one is transitory (WHTC for World Harmonized Transient Cycle).

The WHTC is depicted below:

WHTC cycle

Note that the negative values are set arbitrarily to represent friction losses.

Source: UNECE
Romain Nicolas opinion:

Test cycles are today the only standard way to assess if the emissions legislation are fulfilled by vehicle manufacturers. Those tests have to be designed in a way that enhances the reduction of pollutants and CO2 emissions while it is not too restrictive in order to let the business be opened to several manufacturers and let competition go. Indeed this dilemma is tricky to handle by governments that are often tempted to favor local manufacturers when choosing the cycle that will be used for testing. Do you think we should design cycles that are not too restrictive in order to avoid reducing the number of models that can pass the test cycle satisfying regulations? Do you think that upcoming WLTP will reshuffle the automotive industry in Japan, Europe and India?



  1. GOVIND D SOCKALIGUM02-25-2013




  2. Romain Nicolas02-28-2013


    You have simulation tools like AMESim or Simulink that can easily answer this question. I tried to build a simple excel model and I used a vehicle with the following characteristics:
    1150kg kerb weight, 0.7 SCx, 9kg/t crr, 5 speed manual gearbox 1.4l gasoline engine, 50.3kW/l max power, 94.1Nm max torque.

    I got the following results but without a strong confidence:
    NEDC: 6.6 l/100 km or 157.2 g CO2
    JC08: 6.4 l/100 km or 153.5 g CO2

    However, with a different engine or powertrain, the difference won’t be the same and there are no way to extrapolate.

    Hope this helps.

  3. jumpjack05-20-2013

    Are excel versions of these charts available?

  4. Andrew Slidel07-10-2013


    Thank you for providing such a consice and comprehensive summary of the test cycles. I am particularly interested in the WLTC in which there are three categories according to kerb weight and power. I have some questions and would greatly appreciate any feedback.

    1st the PMR categories according to class. I got a listing of of Kw/Kg ratios from Wiki and it seems that almost without expection all pass cars will fit into the class 3 cycle. Am I correct with this assumption? Do the class 2 & 1 possibly apply to different use i.e. motorcycles, lawn mowers etc? Or am I making the wrong assumption?

    2nd, the WLTC is supposed to be introduced in 2013/14. I cannot find any confirmation of a firm date and whether or not it has been agreed to implement although there is concensus to adopt.

    3rd, Are you aware to what extent the CO2 emissions will be impacted as a result of the WLTC? Today we are looking at circa 130 g/km CO2 with penalties and this reduces to around 95 by 2020 (Euro VII). I would assume that if the CO2 targets remain the same but the test cycle changes (makes more challenging according to a ‘proper’ drive cycle) then the challenge to meet future Euro levels will be much the greater.

    I hope you can help and in anticipation look forward to your feedback.

    Kind regards,

    • Romain Nicolas07-22-2013


      Sorry for not having answered earlier but I was in vacation.

      1st: Pretty correct assumption, some vehicles in India are however in class 2. Class 1 and 2 will apply to on-road vehicles of PMR < 34, so motorcycles mainly.2nd: As automotive lobbying is quite important, the decision to implement WLTC will be postponed several times. An example of this lobby can be seen with postponing of China's 4 and 5 regulation or BSIV in India to a later date.3rd: Simulations would answer easily this question. In terms of CO2, new driving cycle could be better (TBC) as the engine would operate more often close to its optimal operating point (higher loads, lower engine speed), but in terms of emissions, consequences would be important for manufacturers as they would need to reduce the pollutants on a broader range of engine operating points.I hope this helps you! Do not hesitate to contact me for more information.Best regards

  5. Bidhun01-21-2014

    Mr. Romain can u kindly send me the tables of all these graphs if possible? It is for my project work

  6. Abdullah11-05-2014

    I’m trying to prepare a literature review on driving cycles. I have no idea why is very difficult to understand it.
    Could you please direct me to something that I can start with, perhaps a book. Could you also please tell me how people work with the data they collect (are there standard programs that do calculations), are there examples of calculations?
    I really appreciated every sort of help on this topic.
    Thank you.

    • Romain Nicolas11-05-2014


      Regarding literature, I have no idea. Maybe try to visit Delphi website which has a page dedicated to driving cycles explanation.

      Regarding how the data are used, I can say that the driving cycles data (Vehicle speed vs time) are inputs to a simulation model or a vehicle roller bench, once the simulation or test is over, test engineer recover the recorded data and save them under a given data exchange format (it could be csv, xml, …).

      That is generally the way we work with driving cycles.

      Hope this helps.

      Best regards

  7. Abed02-25-2015

    mr. romain, where can i get all tables for those charts above? i need them for my project.

    thank you in advance

  8. Y.Lien09-01-2015

    In my country can’t measure emission on chassis dynamometer with ETC, only ESC. Can convert ETC to ESC? How to convert from ESC or ETC? Help me, please.

    • Romain Nicolas09-01-2015


      I think it will be hard to extrapolate from steady to transient as the behavior of an engine is nonlinear. You may try to extrapolate using advanced simulation models like neural-networks or polynomial models, but there will always be uncertainties.

  9. hichem ilahi09-13-2015

    Mr. Romain , I need the tables of Artemis cycle and NEDC cycle for my research work ; thank you in advance

  10. SUN Long09-27-2015

    hello ,Mr. Romain, i need your jc08 cycle speed points data to do some vehicle tests, please send it to me by email many thanks.

    • Romain Nicolas09-29-2015


      I sent you an email about that!

  11. Manfred Morgan10-12-2015

    Hey Romain,

    would you be so kind to send me the tables of the Artemis and NEDC cycles? I would need them for a comparison.

    Thank you very much in advance.

    Kind regards,


  12. Jonas Gilsdorf10-23-2015

    Hey Romain,

    would you be so kind to send me the speed/acceleration-points data and the tables of the Artemis cycles, too? I need them for vehicle testing.

    Thank you very much in advance.

    Kind regards,

    • Romain Nicolas10-26-2015

      I will send you an email shortly.

  13. Felix Schily10-30-2015

    Dear Romain,
    could you please send me the data of the test cycles, too? I’m mostly interested in transient cycles (Artemis, FTP), as I want a load reference for the design of a gearbox.
    Thank you very much and best regards

  14. Abdullah11-09-2015

    Dear Romain,

    Is it possible to contact you for some help in regards to drive cycles. I have so many questions about drive cycles and I’m very dispirit, because I don’t know where to start.

    I’d really appreciate any help you can provide.

    Thank you,

    • Romain Nicolas11-10-2015

      Yes for sure! Feel free to contact me

  15. George02-04-2016

    Please how can I plot / generate power cycle of a vehicle dynamic model using NEDC driving cycle. I have the model and parameters like vehicle mass, aerodynamic coffienct, frontal area etc. Am just confused. I know excel can do it. I don’t have NEDC data’s… Am just confused. Please help.

    • Romain Nicolas02-05-2016

      The simpler is to use SW tools like AMESim. It can compute instantaneous and accumulated power along the driving cycle with provided parameters like the one you refered to. There is a free trial version available for students!

  16. Vincent02-25-2016

    Dear Romain,

    Can you please send me the tables corresponding to the different Artemis and JC08 cycle ?
    It’s really nice to see all those cycles on only one page.

    Thank you


  17. Charisma Mitra03-02-2016

    Hi Romain,

    Would it be possible to get the Drive Cycle Data for; the NEDC cycle, the FTP-75 cycle, and the 10-15 cycle. With (if possible) a reference to where the data was attained originally, please. It is needed for a university project and so references are needed to be stated, and I am struggling to find the data with a viable reference, so your help would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks in advance,

    Kindest regards,

    • Romain Nicolas03-07-2016


      I sent you an email about it!

  18. Christian06-07-2016

    Hi Romain,

    is it possible that you can send me the excel sheet with the cycle data (time, speed, gear spreadsheet) ? This would be very helpful for my work


  19. Richard07-12-2016

    Hi Romain,

    Great article!

    Can you please send me all the drive cycles in your article in excel format?

    Thanks for your help.

  20. Richard07-13-2016

    Hi Romain,

    Thank you very much for sending the drive cycles data so quickly..You are a very kind and caring person.

    I wish you all the best and keep up the excellent work.

    Best Regards

  21. Ponneeshwar08-11-2016

    hi Romain,

    Can I have numerical value for the Artemis rural cycle?
    It will be extremely useful for my project work. Please send me the table of values.

    Thank you sir.

  22. Akshay Pandya08-19-2016

    Hello Romain,

    Indeed a great article. Would it be possible for you to send me the Artemis-Highway Cycle, WLTC Class 3 and EPA 06 cycle data in excel sheet format. Need those for my Project work.

    Thank you in advance.

    Kind Regards,

  23. Maria08-25-2016

    Thank you Romain for the useful information.

    I also would be really grateful if you could send me the numerical data. It would be really helpful for my research.


  24. Jean-Philippe Launberg09-03-2016

    I see test cycles’ speed x time have been shared in Excel format. I need to perform a high-level simulation using both NEDC, WLTC and USA06 and would appreciate if somebody could share the Excel files by email.

  25. Andrii09-06-2016

    Hi Romain. I need city cycles for bus. Braunschweig driving cycle for bus excel, csv or matlab. Also FTP-75/
    My email is

  26. Dave09-09-2016

    All this fancy stuff with tables and graphs is bull s**t. I have a 2000 corolla. Check engine light came on 19 miles after the codes were cleared. I simply drove it 15 miles instead, then brought it back for emissions. It passed. And NO – it did not come back OBD not ready. All these guys trying to seem like Joe great Mechanic on various sites are in love with themselves. These instructions at drive cycles are ludicrous and convoluted beyond belief. They are full of s**t.

    Clear your codes then drive until the CEL comes back on. Note the miles. Then, drive three miles less than that next time and take your vehicle right in for emissions. And all this “you’ll fail because the OBD’s won’t be set” is nonsense. If you’ve got a 2000 model year or before then two monitors are allowed to not be ready and the test can still be taken. 2001 and later you can have one not ready.

    People who claim that so many miles must be driven or that certain, specific conditions must be observed are, again, full of s**t. I put 15 miles on my car just on side streets – no freeway – and it passed. Try this. It may very well work for you.

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